Jim Wright continues to write thoughtful monographs. This one is on the quest to find Judeo-Christian values, so often the subject of political demagoguery.
Schwartz defines ten basic human values based on the criteria above:
- Self-Direction: independent thought and action–choosing, creating, exploring.
- Stimulation: excitement, novelty, and challenge in life.
- Hedonism: pleasure or sensuous gratification for oneself.
- Achievement: personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards.
- Power: social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources.
- Security: safety, harmony, and stability of society, of relationships, and of self.
- Conformity: restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms.
- Tradition: respect, commitment, and acceptance of the customs and ideas that one’s culture or religion provides.
- Benevolence: preserving and enhancing the welfare of those with whom one is in frequent personal contact (the ‘in-group’).
- Universalism: understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature.